A pilonidal cyst is a cyst that develops at the bottom of the tail bone. It usually gets infected and is filled with hair, and is typically present in young people. It initially appears to be an infected pimple that requires drainage. Once the drainage has been done and the infection subsides, the definitive treatment is done in the operating room.
An anal fistula is an abnormal passage between the anal canal and the perianal skin. The most common symptoms are itching, pain, purulent discharge, and bleeding. Anal fistulas originate in the anal gland and occur when the outlet of this gland gets blocked. An abscess forms and is typically drained through the perianal skin. The primary treatment consists in draining the abscess when it forms, and then the fistula can be addressed surgically. The surgery has a significant reoccurrence rate and has certain unpredictability in its success.
Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer in the lining of the anal canal. It presents itself with a variety of symptoms like anal pain, bleeding, itching, and sensation of a foreign body in the anal canal. The predisposing factors are immunosuppressant diseases, such as HIV infection, multiple sexual partners, HPV infection, caused by HPV subtypes 16 and 18, smoking, and anal sex. The first line of treatment is radiation with chemotherapy and radical surgery for the fail cases.
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer, with high prevalence en Western societies, likely due to a diet high in red meat and fats and not enough fiber. The best way to detect it is through surveillance procedures being the most accurate. These procedures include colonoscopy followed by x ray procedures like barium enema and virtual colonoscopy. As with any cancer, early detection is critical in the success of the treatment, therefore a colonoscopy is recommended for everyone over the age of 50, even when no symptoms are present. This cancer generally presents itself later on in life, but is more common in people in their sixties and seventies but it can occur at any age. The symptoms vary in accordance with the location of the tumor, but by the time the tumor is symptomatic, it is generally in the advanced stages of the disease. The most common symptoms is pain felt on the left side of the colon, anemia, abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, small caliber stools, and intestinal obstruction. Rectal bleeding is also a very common symptom, but rectal bleeding occurs in many other diseases as well. Therefore, when rectal bleeding does occur, it should be assessed for the possibility of colon cancer. The treatment varies in sequence, depending on the location and extension of the disease and includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Anal or genital warts, also known as condyloma acuminate, are sexually transmitted infections caused by certain subtypes of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Warts are the most common manifestation of the disease, and more specifically, the HPV subtypes 6 and 11 are the ones that cause warts, but only a small percentage of infected people develop warts. Yet, people infected with HPV can still transmit the virus through sexual contact, even if warts have not developed. Other types of HPV related diseases are cervical and anal cancer. Treatments for anal and genital warts range from different topical agents to laser surgery.
Rectal prolapsed is a condition where the rectum protrudes through the anal canal and in the early stages can be internal. The second stage is mucosa prolapsed and it is when the mucosa, or the superficial layer, protrudes. The third stage is complete rectal prolapsed. It is usually the result of chronic constipation and severe straining, and presents itself more commonly in elderly patients. The treatment can vary from improving the diet, office treatments, or in advanced cases, surgical intervention.
Rectal abscess is an infection in the rectum, perianal area, or perirectal area. It is usually the precursor to an anal fistula, but can sometimes be cured with surgery. Typical symptoms are pain in the rectum that gradually increases as days go by. Treatment typically includes surgical drainage with antibiotics.